Here’s Why The Sports Card Market Crashed In The 90’s (And Why It Might Happen Again)

Updated Oct 04, 2023

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I was 9 years old when I first started collecting back in 1985.

I got a few packs of 1985 Topps baseball cards and was hooked; as a kid that loved baseball, those little pieces of cardboard were everything to me.

I was obsessed right away and it consumed my entire being, ranging from riding my bike three miles to the nearest baseball card store and setting up tables in my basement for a ‘baseball card show’ amongst friends.

My brother soon opened a baseball card store and I was quickly thrown into battle as a high schooler peddling cards and negotiating purchases.

I lived through the peak of the ‘Junk Era’ in which cards were massively overproduced, yet at the time, I didn’t grasp the realities of what was happening with the values of cards.

I returned to the hobby several years after college and slowly started getting interested in cards again –which ultimately led to the launch of ‘All Vintage Cards’. 

I’ve discussed my thoughts about the current market exhibiting signs of being in bubble territory, but this time I wanted to examine the current market environment in relation to the last big card bubble from the 1990s.  

While I lived through it, I sort of always chalked up the bursting card bubble to overproduction but figured there had to be more to it. 

Thus, I went into the archives, did some more extensive research, and spoke to other people in the hobby. 

Why Did The Card Market Crash In The 90's_

Thus, here are the results of my exploration into the sports card bubble from the 90s’.   

Note, if you lived through it and have a different perspective, or if you just want to leave your thoughts on my findings, please leave a comment!

Massive Print Runs Were Mostly Unknown By Collectors In The 80s and 90s

In the thick of the madness during the 1980s no one really had any idea that most print runs for major card sets were in the multiple millions.   There was no internet--the only way to communicate with other collectors was via local card shows or stores.  It wasn't until the mid 90s when eBay launched that collectors started to figure out how massive the existing supplies were.

Publications such as Beckett, Tuff-Stuff and Sport Collector's Daily kept a pulse on the hobby and provided collectors with pricing.  However, those publications never discussed the actual print runs for each of the major card companies.  And the card companies themselves did not disclose this information.

At the height of their popularity in the early 1990s, card manufacturers produced an estimated 81 billion baseball cards a year.

 (source: “Mint Condition: How Baseball Cards Became an American Obsession")

The focus was more about who were the next big rookies to collect. This led to more of an 'investment' mindset, as collectors realized they could earn sizeable profits.  Just buy a few packs and re-sell the individual cards from the boxes at a massive profit.  (Sound familiar?)

One of the poster child cards of the junk era was none other than the Ken Griffey Junior 1989 Upper Deck Rookie card.  At the time, Upper Deck was a brand new entrant to the scene and part of a new game-plan to increase the quality (and the costs) of new cards.  


"[The Griffey card] was the first card of an Upper Deck product, and Upper Deck broke the mold on what a trading card looked like and felt like," said Tracy Hackler, publisher for Beckett Media, a leading authority on sports cards. "You had the vibrant printing, and the glossy card stock was of such better quality. It was pretty."  from ESPN's "The Ken Griffey Jr Card Speaks"

Griffey's Upper Deck rookie became the must-own card, and the one that was going to facilitate early retirement for the young and old.  Yet, no one quite knew the extent to which Upper Deck was hitting the printing presses.  

While it was a premium product and likely produced in fewer quantities than other earlier junk era Topps issues, it is still estimated that Upper Deck produced over 1 Million copies of the card.  

Thus, the greed and the huge (and unknown at the time) oversupply from the card manufacturers is one of the big reasons that the hobby burst in a big way.  From Dave Jamieson who wrote the excellent book "Mint Condition":

It was greed on the part of card makers because they rolled out so much product that it diluted the power of the cards and killed the golden goose. It was greed on the part of the baseball union, because they sold a lot of rights—and made a lot of royalties on those rights—until they had too many card makers. Then you had greed on the part of dealers, surly guys who didn’t care to talk to the nine year olds who came into their shops, and were there just to sell cards.

As you can imagine this sort of wool over the eyes in regards to production run numbers led to some pretty disappointed collectors who saw their card values go up in flames....

"In the early 1990s baseball cards were better than money, better than gold, hell, they were supposed to pay for college tuitions because they were such a solid investment. As everyone knows, but few can bear to admit, nothing could have been further from the awful truth" - from the now defunct baseballcarddeath website

"On behalf of my generation, I felt tricked. Long ago, my parents had told me that I needed to keep these baseball cards safe and sound; when I was an adult, they promised, I could send my kids to college by selling them." - from Grayson Haver Currin at the Indy Star

The proliferation of card stores helped to fuel the access to cards as did the price guides such as Beckett, which helped add a sort of formal stamp of approval to the ridiculous prices that some collectors were handing over for these massively produced cards. 

** Quick editor's note...some of the junk era stuff, including the Griffey Jr Upper Deck card are coming back to life, especially higher-graded copies, although I feel that collectors might again be ignoring the facts about the existing supplies of these cards.

I would also note that despite the card crash in the 90s, rarer vintage cards were mostly immune from the same sort of massive decline witnessed with many of those cards produced during the 'junk era'. 

According to estimates from Sports Collector's Digest, card sales amounted to $1.2 billion in 1991, but by the end of the millennium (1999) total sales had declined to $400 million, and 2008 sales dropped all the way to $200 million.  Source: Forbes

A Flood Of Non-Hobbyist's Looking To Make A Quick Buck Entered The Hobby

Today's market is being fueled in large part by investment funds pooling capital to invest in high dollar cards.  Hedge funds, card breakers and fractional interest platforms (such as Collectable) are likely behind the hard to explain increases witnessed over the past few months.  Back in the 80s and 90s when I was collecting, I was too young to even think about if there were big investors playing the game.  I'm sure there were, but I don't think it was a hedge fund game at the time.

Author Dave Jamieson from his book "Mint Condition"

" By the ’80s, baseball card values were rising beyond the average hobbyist’s means. As prices continued to climb, baseball cards were touted as a legitimate investment alternative to stocks, with the Wall Street Journal referring to them as sound “inflation hedges” and “nostalgia futures.” Newspapers started running feature stories with headlines such as “Turning Cardboard Into Cash” (the Washington Post), “A Grand Slam Profit May Be in the Cards” (the New York Times), and “Cards Put Gold, Stocks to Shame as Investment” (the Orange County Register). "

Sure, I believe there were likely investors with deep pockets joining the hobby to try and buy higher-priced cards to resell for profit, but I think it was more of a retail frenzy than anything else.  When I worked in my brother's card store in the early 90s, it was less driven by kids, and more about adults that were chasing packs in hopes of landing a big insert.  Kind of a big-time gambler's mentality and something I think is very similar to modern packs insert chasing and or card breaks of today. 

It was less about big investors and more about collectors and non-hobbyists realizing that they could buy a $1, $2 or $5 pack and more than quadruple their investment.  With the lack of information available on card supply, there was typically a buyer on the other side willing to pay a higher than warranted premium.  

The perception was soon coming into play that baseball cards were now a viable option for investing your money.  Word of five to six figure auction sales for a T206 Wagner or the 52 Topps Mantle started to lead collectors into a false sense of hope. 

Collectors (or more like speculators) were snapping up 100 card lots of rookies such as Todd Van Poppel, Brien Taylor, Sam Horn and Ellis Burks (I'm a Sox fan, had to throw in those last two) with the hope that once those guys hit it big, they would have a fortune in their hands.  Little did they know that those 100 card lots basically represented about .00001% of the existing population.  


I will note that many collectors were also hoarding unopened wax boxes at the time thinking that in twenty years it would be worth a fortune.  Unfortunately, despite some minor exceptions, the majority of the junk wax from the 80s and 90s is worth less than the original retail value.

Higher Priced Offerings Started To Price Out Core Collectors

The frenzy in the market started to get seriously out of control by the early 1990's when according to one resource, there were as many as 80 companies producing trading cards. 

The days of the 25 cent and 50 cent packs with a stick of gum were long gone by this time.  It became less of a hobby and more of a platform to make a quick buck. Those 25 and 50 cent packs became $2, $5 and $10 per pack and the pure hobbyists, which were mostly younger kids were completely priced out of the hobby.  


A 1994 Flair baseball pack--one of the more expensive issued packs of the era.

The pure greed in the hobby led to a dumpster fire of overproduction and pure blindness as to the worthlessness of the cards being produced.  Insert cards started becoming more of the norm, but still with unknown production ranges.  It was this mania that started to drive the pure collectors out of the hobby all together.

The Baseball Strike Added Fuel To The Fire

On August 12, 1994, Major League Baseball was put on pause and ultimately the season was cancelled, with resolution not happening until 235 days later.  The World Series was cancelled, leaving many in the hobby sort of panicking as to how a cancelled baseball season might effect the hobby.

It was the fuel that the fire needed to blow up in its entirety.  Casual baseball fans that started collecting were no longer interested.  It wasn't long before many of the speculators also left the hobby en masse, leading to a freefall in card prices, ultimately cementing the history as one of the biggest non-stock market bubbles in history

Are There Any Parallels Between The 90's Card Market Burst And Today's Card Market?

Yes.  First, let's just say I have some concerns.  Whether it's with the vintage or the modern card market--things have moved up at an unstainable rate.  


This Second Year 1981 Topps Bird PSA 9 Card has been selling for nearly $4000. Only a month ago it was selling for a little over $1000. Is that sustainable? Note there are nearly 1000 copies graded by PSA.

There are definitely some things in common with the 1990's bubble.  First, there is a lot of GREED rampant through the hobby (and elsewhere), which is evidenced by the throngs of speculators that have entered the market.  As I have always noted, the entrance of private equity and investment funds into the space is a major concern to me.  

How many everyday collectors are now getting priced out of some of the more iconic rookie cards in the hobby?  The speculators and the big-pocketed investors are taking over.  

I'm afraid that for many cards that have seen 10x fold + price increases in less than a year, there will ultimately be a lack of a buyer at a higher price on the other end. When it ends is anyone's guess, but let's just remember that things can't go up in a straight line forever.  But that's my opinion.  


I decided to reach out to my buddy Frank Dean who I was swapping cards with back in the 1980s and has been a blog guest here before. Frank knows vintage cards and while he isn't a modern era collector he certainly has a good feel for what's happening with the hobby.  

So I asked Frank point blank--do you think today's market could burst like it did in the 1990s?

Signs Of A Bubble Brewing?

"The signs I see are the rapid influx of new people into the hobby. I question their staying power.  What’s different this time around is the manufactured scarcity in modern cards.  It’s worked out well for card makers and has created a huge interest but it always concerned me as a business model. 

I think the new people and new money on the hobby create a lot of volatility that has been trickling back into vintage and even prewar cards. The further back you go the less worried I am about a bubble but I have deep concerns about the modern market.  

I also thought prices would drop once COVID hit and the economy ground to a halt (and that didn't happen), so it would be interesting to see what happens when people ultimately go back to the office." 

-vintage collector and fellow strip card enthusiast,  Frank Dean

All Vintage Cards

About the author

Chris Rogers, is the founder of All Vintage Cards. Launched in 2018, All Vintage Cards is the hobby's leading resource for vintage sports cards. Chris is also the author of 'The Complete Guide To Selling Your Sports Cards'. Chris remains an avid collector and can be reached at

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  1. While I would agree with most of your article I think that you left out a very important part from back in the early 90’s. Like today great sports stars brought out more interest than just the investors in collecting. Jordan, Shaq and various other stars drove the market and we could not keep rookies in stock at the time. I owned baseball card stores and sold mostly to kids and their parents but did see the speculators when I did shows. It is fun seeing this same interest today in Zion and others but it is certainly getting out of hand at $2000 a box that the distributors are charging now for new basketball cards. Paying $300 for a Lamelo Ball base rookie is completely insane which shows you how bad it became in one year. There is a long time between great rookie years (talking about the amount of good ones in one year) and you have to be lucky to be buying as one of those years plays out. Don’t get in to deep and collect the stars you like and it is still fun and don’t worry so much about values. If you really need an investment put your money in a savings account earning interest. Happy collecting!

  2. Has collecting cards really ever been for kids. 50s 60s maybe. Adults buy them for kids. How many 10 year olds say hey dad I want to collect cards. I remember sitting around the table with my dad. As he and his buddies played with my cards. O boy that wasn’t fun. In 89 I opened a store. I had another business a front office available. I had a lot off cards still do. The girls were ok with it . No overhead Why not. It is my opinion that when I had a store . Cards were not for kids. When kids did come in. I didn’t sell them anything. I gave them away. Collecting cards was not about retiring for me?. I couldn’t afford Mantle then. I didn’t expect these prices today. I turned down two 53 Mantle’s. When the hobby went south I closed the store. I still collect today. I haven’t looked at the price of cards until just recently. Wow Brady six figures really. I have spent the last couple months digging. I got the cards. And today PSA is closed. Probably for the best I don’t understand the pricing. I bought a box last weak $200 bucks. First one in years. I have been collecting for 50 years. This hobby is not kids.

  3. I heard collectables run in twenty year cycles?. I don’t know. This boom of six figure cards will end?. Mantle will always be big money. I looked at the PSA site. In 2000 a Tiger Woods card sold for $100,000. The same card today is $10,000. There are cards that supply and demand will keep them pricy. And others that there are just to many cards printed. I believe these booms are good for the collectors that really enjoy these cards. And if one of us pulls that special card worth big money good for them. Isn’t finding that one card. The one that everyone wants why we buy packs . I guess in a way we are all speculators. And if someone wants to buy your card for big money . Sell it. I have said for 20 years. Sell them when there hot. Buy them when there not. These speculators are good for the every day collector. We dont have to spend thousands to put a set together. The best sets are available for a fair price. And the possibility of getting a autographed chrome black refractor makes collecting fun and possibly worth it. If there wasn’t people willing to spend this money. They might quit making them. That would be a bummer. I seen a pair of sneakers sell for six figures. It is not just cards . Collect what you like.

  4. They’re just cardboard cards basically material objects. When I was 13 I got to completely obsessed with buying cards are all late ’80s cards they’re basically worthless monetary Orly speaking. But anyways I wish somebody was around then to tell me not to waste my damn money on these things and not to get so obsessed over material things. Oh well if that’s your hobby and that’s what you like to do so be it they just sit in boxes. Haven’t seen many collectors put them up on the wall. By now you can probably just sum me up with someone who doesn’t get it. But I’m going through a whole minimalism phase. I just got rid of a bunch of guitars. In my situation right now I’ve got about a month to get rid of anything I don’t need. Or haven’t used in the past whatever you can make up a number like 6 months year. But getting pretty attached to stuff can make it really hard to dispose of or sell. Makes me just want to torch the whole place. Anyway I think the only thing they’re good for is using a clothespin to make a cool noise with your bike when your a kid. Jesus so many better things that adults could be doing than collecting f****** baseball cards do something humanitarian help your neighbor start a cause teach people how to be kind and compassionate and caring. I don’t think they make caskets big enough to hold all those cards. Cremation you could take them with you that way. Anyway I don’t think I got the point of the article just think of it this way if you could only own 50 things would baseball cards be one of them? I might keep the mantle as one of my 50 until I run out of toilet paper.

  5. In the height of it (circa 1991-93) I worked part time at a card shop for credit (my dream job lol) and we had bery different types of buyers. One guy was a slob who worked at the post office-a career job he worked-he would soend half of his paycheck every week obtaining all the hot rookies/inserts and unopened boxes of the newest stuff. He was always buying new hot inserts off our bidboard too. He spent probably $200-250/week on cards EVERY week like clockwork.

    Contrast that guy with our high school ROTC drill instructor-he never planned how much to spend-rather, he spent his time chasing anything high grade of stars/key cards from 1970-prior. His big thing was collecting only pristine examples of vintage stuff. He moght go weeks or months w/o buying anything but if he got work a shop had a NR MT/MT (grading wasn’t a thing yet iirc) 1957 Mantle or a really nice Hank Aaron rookie well then he would be ready to spend some cash. He loved baseball and collecting but if he was going to spend money-it had to be worth it to him-he freely admitted he plans to retire off his collection someday-its why he only collected vintage. “My collection is made up of cards you have to look for and hope somebody wants to sell to obtain-they aren’t flooding every store with 50s/60s cards after all”.

  6. Thanks for that blog entry. I am coming from a completely different background, as a Soccer fan based in Europe the Panini stickers and albums were the things to have every world cup and euro cup. It was a case of filling your sticker album as quick as possible and to swap stickers was the great game at the end of it, when Mum wouldn‘t pay for any more stickers. So for a Zico you could get 4 or 5 different players at once… but that is history and childhood. With baseball cards I started just recently and only (so far…) because I like the cards – and formthe love of the game. reading stats on them and having fun with the one or another flashy card. I had no idea Baseball cards are and were such a big business, wow! I always thought it‘s either for kids of fans of the game. But reading in your blogs was an eyeopener to me. Well… it does not change my childish behaviour in having just fun with the cards, or double fun when or if I get one of my fav players. So, here I am, like a child, 53 years old, who loves the game and watches a ball game every day, and keep looking at the newest cards he just bought from Topps. So yes, a bit it is a kid‘s game… baseball of course I mean 😉

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